Los orígenes de la mentalidad capitalista y los agentes económicos activos: una hipótesis global

Carlos Newland

Resumen


La Anglosfera, el norte de Europa y la Sinósfera son conglomerados de países que incluyen poblaciones con mentalidades afines a la economía de mercado. Estos países tienden a tener instituciones conducentes a la eficiencia económica.  Este trabajo, basado en una intuición de F. Hayek, presenta la hipótesis de que la mentalidad capitalista se origina, en buena medida, en las estructuras agrarias del pasado, más concretamente en la proporción de la población acostumbrada a interactuar en el mercado sin grandes restricciones. Esta situación generó una comprensión y aceptación del funcionamiento y virtudes de las economías competitivas. En el resto del mundo, por contraste, una gran parte de la población rural estaba limitada por restricciones feudales o sufrían de interferencias comunales, gubernamentales o tribales. Otra parte se desempeñaba pasivamente en una situación de esclavitud o como trabajadores en haciendas. Esta situación generó una cierta pasividad que se trasladó a una mentalidad más propensa a aceptar la intervención gubernamental.

Palabras clave


capitalismo; mercado; historia; economía

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